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LLB Annual Report 2023 de

Accounting principles

Information unaudited Information ungeprüft Accounting principles

1 Principles of accounting

1.1 Basic information

The LLB Group offers a broad spectrum of financial services. Of particular importance are asset management and investment advisory for private and institutional clients, as well as retail and corporate client businesses.

The Liechtensteinische Landesbank Aktiengesellschaft, founded in and with its registered office located in Vaduz, Principality of Liechtenstein, is the parent company of the LLB Group. It is listed on the SIX Swiss Exchange.

The Board of Directors reviewed this consolidated annual statement at its meeting on 23 February 2024 and approved it for publication.

1.2 Events during the business year

On 28 August 2023, LLB started a public share repurchase programme that will continue until 27 August 2026 at the latest. The repurchase of up to 400ʼ000 own registered shares corresponds to 1.3 per cent of the share capital and will be carried out via the ordinary trading line of the SIX Swiss Exchange. No shares are to be destroyed. For further information, please visit the website

1.3 Events after the balance sheet date

LLB strengthens its presence in Germany with the opening of its branch offices in Munich, Düsseldorf and Frankfurt from 1 January 2024.

On 30 January 2024, the Liechtenstein Government adapted its participation strategy for its holding in Liechtensteinische Landesbank AG. This defines the role of the Principality of Liechtenstein as majority shareholder of LLB. Even in the revised version, the Government emphasises that it shall safeguard the shareholder interests of the State within the scope of the competences of the General Meeting of Shareholders under stock corporation law, and in doing so, that it recognises the concept of entrepreneurial autonomy, as well as the rights and obligations arising from the stock market listing. At the same time, the participation strategy defines the majority shareholderʼs expectations of LLB and offers minority interests planning security. Further information can be found at

No other material events occurred after the balance sheet date which would have a significant influence on the asset, financial and earnings position of the LLB Group.

2 Summary of material accounting policies

This chapter contains the material accounting and valuation methods employed in the preparation of this consolidated financial statement. The described methods have been consistently employed for the reporting periods shown, provided no statement to the contrary is specified.

2.1 Basis for financial accounting

2.1.1 General points

Except for the revaluation of certain financial assets and liabilities, as well as of investment property, the consolidated financial statement was prepared on the basis of the historical acquisition or production cost in conformance with the International Financial Reporting Standards employed in the European Union (EU-IFRS). In addition, it meets the requirements stipulated in Article 17a of the Person and Company Law Ordinance of the Principality of Liechtenstein.

On account of detailed definitions in its presentation, the consolidated financial statement of the comparison period may contain reclassifications. These reclassifications are reported, if they are regarded as material.

2.1.2 New IFRS, amendments and interpretations Changes to accounting policies effective since 1 January 2023

The following new or amended EU-IFRS or interpretations are relevant and were applied by the LLB Group for the first time from 1 January 2023:

  • Amendments to IAS 1 “Material Accounting Policies” – Clarification that in future entities disclose their material accounting policy information and not their significant accounting policies
  • IAS 8 “Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors” – The amendments introduced the definition of accounting estimates to distinguish changes in accounting estimates from changes in accounting policies
  • IAS 12 “Income Taxes” – The amendment clarifies that deferred taxes are to be allocated for single transactions on initial recognition if equal amounts of deductable and taxable temporary differences arise from the single transaction

These amendments will have no material influence on the financial statement of the LLB Group.

The amendments to IAS 12 “Income Taxes” in relation to the global minimum taxation of multinational groups with gross revenue of at least EUR 750 million include the temporary exemption from recognising deferred taxes and additional disclosure requirements. The LLB Group is expected to be affected by the Pillar 2 international tax reform from 2025. Initial analyses of the type and extent to which the LLB Group will be affected will begin in the 2024 business year. Applicable for financial years beginning on 1 January 2024

Currently, there are no new or amended EU-IFRS or interpretations which are of relevance for the LLB Group.

2.1.3 Use of estimates in the preparation of financial statements

Management is required to make estimates and assumptions in preparing the financial statement in conformity with IFRS. These can contain significant uncertainties. These assumptions can affect individual items in income, expenses, assets and liabilities, as well as the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. The estimates and assumptions are based on the best information available at the time and are continually adjusted to take into consideration the latest facts and circumstances. Actual results in the future could differ substantially from such estimates and assumptions.

Significant estimates and assumptions are found principally in the following areas of the consolidated financial statement, and are dealt with partly in the explanations concerning the valuation of balance sheet positions and / or partly in the corresponding notes to the consolidated income statement in Expected credit lossesGoodwill, Provisions, Fair value measurement, as well as Pension plans and other long-term benefits.

2.2 Consolidation policies

The presentation of the consolidated financial statement adopts a business perspective. The consolidation period corresponds to the calendar year.

2.2.1 Subsidiaries

LLB Group companies, in which Liechtensteinische Landesbank AG holds, directly or indirectly, the majority of the voting rights or otherwise exercises control, are fully consolidated. The chapter Scope of consolidation contains an overview of the companies, which the consolidated statement encompasses.

The capital consolidation is carried out according to the purchase method.

2.2.2 Participation in associated companies

Associated companies are recognised according to the equity method.

2.2.3 Investment in joint venture

Joint ventures, i.e. companies in which LLB has a 50 per cent participation, are recognised according to the equity method.

2.2.4 Changes to the scope of consolidation

Changes in the scope of consolidation are disclosed in the note Scope of consolidation. The changes described there had no material impact.

2.3 General principles

2.3.1 Recording of business

Sales and purchases from trading assets, derivative financial instruments and financial investments are booked on the transaction date. Loans, including those to clients, are recorded in that period of time in which the funds flow to the borrower.

2.3.2 Inland versus abroad

“Inland” encompasses the Principality of Liechtenstein and Switzerland.

2.4 Foreign currency translation

2.4.1 Functional currency and reporting currency

The items contained in the financial accounts of each Group company are valued in the currency which is used in the primary business environment in which the company operates (functional currency).

The reporting currency of the LLB Group is the Swiss franc.

2.4.2 Group financial statement

Items of Group companies which report their financial accounts in a functional currency other than the Group’s reporting currency are translated as follows: all assets and liabilities are converted at the relevant exchange rate valid on the balance sheet date. All individual items in the income statement and statement of cash flows are converted at the average exchange rate for the accounting period. All resulting exchange differences are booked individually to equity and other comprehensive income, respectively.

2.4.3 Separate financial statements

Foreign currency transactions are translated on the day of the transaction at spot rates into the functional currency. Foreign currency differences with financial assets and financial liabilities occur if the exchange rate prevailing on the reporting date differs from the spot rate on the transaction date. In the case of monetary items, the resulting foreign currency differences are recognised in the income statement in the position foreign exchange trading under net trading income. The same applies to non-monetary items, which are recognised at fair value. In the case of non-monetary items, whose fair value changes are recognised directly in equity and in other comprehensive income without affecting net income, respectively, the foreign currency difference is a part of the change in fair value. If material, the foreign currency difference is reported. The following exchange rates were employed for foreign currency conversion:

Closing Rate















Average rate









2.5 Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents include the items listed in the consolidated statement of cash flows. These largely consist of cash (see note 11), loans from banks, due daily (see note 12), as well as other cash equivalents reported in the consolidated statement of cash flows.

2.6 Measurement of balance sheet positions

Depending on the basis on which they are measured, balance sheet positions can be assigned to two groups: IFRS 9 relevant and IFRS 9 non-relevant. The major portion of the LLB Group’s balance sheet total is composed of balance sheet items that are measured according to IFRS 9.

2.6.1 Balance sheet positions measured according to IFRS 9 and portfolio hedge accounting according to IAS 39 Classification and measurement of financial assets

The following table provides an overview of the individual measurement methods and the assets associated with them at the LLB Group:






Valuation method


Amortised cost

At fair value through other comprehensive income

At fair value through profit and loss






Cash and balances with central banks

Financial investments

Financial investments


Due from banks

- Debt instruments

- Debt instruments



- Equity instruments

- Equity instruments


Financial investments


Derivative financial instruments


- Debt instruments


Precious metal receivables










"Hold" business model

Debt instruments

"Others" business model


SPPI ability

- "Hold to Collect and Sell" business model

The conditions of other valuation methods were not fulfilled



- SPPI ability








Equity instruments




- Designation




- Not held for trading purposes




- No contingent consideration resulting from business combinations


Employment within the LLB Group

Only in the case of financial investments does the management of the LLB Group determine the strategy and the respective business model for all Group companies. The business models “Hold”, “Hold and Sell” and “Others” are employed. The allocation to the individual business model depends on the the category to which the financial investment belongs and whether it should be held until final maturity. The LLB Group divides financial investments into two categories: “Asset & Liability Management” and “Strategic Participations”.

Debt instruments in the “Asset & Liability Management” category are assigned to the “Hold” and “Hold and Sell” business models. Debt instruments in the business model “Hold” primarily collect income from interest payments. They are only disposed of if the risk of default rises significantly, if sustainability criteria are no longer fulfilled, or if scenarios occur, which, after a reasonable assessment, were not expected. Debt instruments in the business model “Hold and Sell” serve primarily to manage liquidity and therefore to control the liquidity ratio (LR), the liquidity coverage ratio (LCR) and the Tier 1 ratio. In the case of investments in new issues, the internal assessment of the SPPI criteria is compared downstream with the external assessment from Bloomberg. Where assumptions diverge and there is no conformity with SPPI criteria according to Bloomberg, management is informed accordingly. It then decides about the further treatment of the debt instruments. An external assessment is utilised in the case of instruments which are traded on a market. Old holdings, i.e. debt instruments that under IAS 39 “Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement” were recognised at fair value through profit and loss will continue to be measured according to this method until their disposal. These serve primarily as economic hedging instruments and therefore do not fulfil the criteria of the business models “Hold” or “Hold and Sell”. They are assigned to the business model “Others”.

Financial investments of the strategic participations category encompass equity instruments and investment fund units. They do not fulfil the SPPI criteria and are therefore recognised at fair value through profit and loss. In the case of some equity instruments that comply with the definition of equity capital securities, they are designated irrevocably for measurement at fair value in other comprehensive income. Consequently, if the instruments are sold, the unrealised gains accrued in other comprehensive income cannot be recycled. Further information is provided in note 15.

The decision regarding the allocation to a business model or the appropriate designation is made at the product level.

Financial assets measured at amortised cost

  • Cash and balances with central banks
    These are measured at nominal value.
  • Due from banks, loans and debt instruments
    These claims are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method and taking into consideration an expected credit loss (ECL). The value stated in the balance sheet therefore corresponds to a net carrying amount because the expected credit loss is recognised in the balance sheet as a reduction of the carrying amount of a receivable. For off-balance sheet items, such as a commitment, however, a provision for credit loss is reported. The off-balance sheet total is not reduced. The impairments are recognised in the income statement and reported under line item “Expected credit losses”. Detailed information about expected credit loss and its calculation is provided in point Impairments. Further information can be found in the comments on risk management in risk management chapter 3 Credit risk. Interest is recognised on an accrual basis and reported in Net interest income.  In general, the LLB Group grants loans only on a collateralised basis, or only to counterparties having very high credit worthiness.

Financial assets recognised at fair value through other comprehensive income

  • Debt instruments
    The debt instruments (corporate bonds) are measured in a two-step process. In a first step, these are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Subsequently, this value is adjusted to fair value. Note 33 provides information on the determination of fair value. Debt instruments are exposed to credit risk. To account for this, an expected credit loss is calculated. Unlike for assets measured at amortized cost, this is equity-neutral. Detailed information on expected credit losses and their calculation is disclosed in point Impairments. Further information can be found in the comments on risk management in chapter 3 Credit risk. Interest or negative interest is recognised on an accrual basis and reported in net interest income. The basis of calculation is the value calculated using the effective interest method before adjustment to fair value. If the debt instrument matures or is sold before maturity, the unrealised gains or losses accumulated in other comprehensive income are recycled through the income statement and recognised in net income from financial investments.
  • Equity instruments
    Equity instruments are measured at fair value. Value changes and the corresponding gains / losses are recognised in other comprehensive income. Note 33 contains information about the calculation of fair value. In the case of the disposal of the equity instruments, the unrealised gains reported in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income are not reclassified in the income statement. These are reclassified in retained earnings without affecting the income statement. Dividend earnings are recognised in the income statement under net income from financial investments.

Financial assets at fair value through profit and loss

  • Receivables from precious metals
    These are measured at market value through profit and loss and reported in net trading income. Note 33 provides information about the calculation of fair value.
  • Derivative financial instruments
    Derivative financial instruments are recognised as positive or negative replacement values in the balance sheet. The replacement value corresponds to the fair value. Note 33 contains information about its calculation. Derivative financial instruments are held within the LLB Group for hedging and trading purposes. If the derivative financial instruments held for hedging purposes do not fulfil the strict IFRS hedge accounting criteria, changes in fair value are recognised, as with derivative financial instruments held for trading purposes, in net trading income. For further information regarding hedge accounting, see the following section “Hedging transactions” and note 14.
  • Hedge accounting
    Within the scope of risk management at the LLB Group, derivative financial instruments are employed principally to manage interest rate risk and only with counterparties having very high credit worthiness within predetermined limits. The management of interest rate risks is based on the requirements of the limits system. If these transactions fulfil the IFRS-specific hedge accounting criteria, and if these were employed as hedging instruments from a risk management perspective, they can be shown according to hedge accounting guidelines. If these transactions do not fulfil the IFRS-specific hedge accounting criteria, they are not presented according to hedge accounting guidelines, even if from an economic point of view they represent hedging transactions and are consistent with the risk management principles of the LLB Group. The LLB Group employs portfolio fair value hedge accounting (PFVH) for fixed-interest rate interest instruments. In this case, the interest rate risks of the underlying transaction (e.g. a fixed-rate mortgage) are hedged by means of hedging instruments (e.g. an interest rate swap). The PFVH portfolios consist of a sub portfolio of hedging transactions, which is compared with a sub portfolio of underlying transactions. The interest rate risk profile of the sub portfolios is determined using an optimisation algorithm in order to achieve an optimum hedge allocation. The portfolios are designated over a hedge period of one month and are measured both retrospectively and prospectively. The effect on the income statement of the change in fair value of the hedging instrument is recognised under the same position in the income statement as the respective effect of the change in fair value of the hedged basic transaction. In the case of the hedging of interest rate risks at the portfolio level, the fair value change in the hedged item is recognised in the same balance sheet position as the underlying item. If fair value hedge accounting is employed for reasons other than the derecognition of the hedged transaction, the amount, which is reported in the same balance sheet position as the underlying transaction, is amortised over the residual term of the underlying transaction in the income statement.
  • Financial investments
    Within the LLB Group, the portfolio of financial investments encompasses debt instruments and equity instruments. Debt instruments include both corporate bonds and investment fund units. The fund units represent callable instruments, which do not meet the criteria for equity instruments. Note 33 provides information about the calculation of fair value. Non-realised gains or losses are reported in net income from financial investments. Interest is recognised on an accrual basis and reported in net interest income. Dividends are reported directly in net income from financial investments. Classification and measurement of financial liabilities

Basically, the LLB Group’s financial liabilities are classified at amortised cost. Exceptions are derivative financial instruments and liabilities from precious metals, which are classified at fair value through profit and loss.

The following table provides an overview of the individual measurement methods and the financial liabilities with which they are employed at the LLB Group.





Valuation method


Amortised cost

At fair value through profit and loss





Due to banks

Derivative financial instruments


Due to customers

Precious metal liabilities


Commitments for leases



Debt issued


Financial liabilities measured at amortised cost

Interest is recognised on an accrual basis and reported in net interest income. Effects, which arise as a result of the early disposal of the financial liability are recognised in the income statement.

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit and loss

Note 33 contains information about the calculation of fair value. The changes in fair value are recognised in net trading income; with the exception of derivatives, which are related to hedge accounting. For information regarding hedge accounting see the chapter “Hedging transactions” and note 14. Impairments

In line with IFRS 9, the LLB Group has developed and implemented an impairment model in order to quantify expected credit losses.

Governance in relation to input factors, assumptions and estimation procedures

The impairment model for the determination of the expected credit loss requires a range of input factors, assumptions and estimation procedures that are specific to the individual institute. This, in turn, necessitates the establishment of a governance process. The regular review, stipulation and approval of input factors, assumptions and estimation procedures is the responsibility of Group Management and is carried out on an ad hoc basis, but at least once a year. In addition, internal control systems at the LLB Group ensure the correct quantification of the expected loss as well as the conformance with IFRS.

Segmentation of the credit portfolio

The LLB Group segments its credit portfolio according to two criteria: by type of credit and by customer segment. The following types of credit are considered for the modelling of probability of default (PD), loss given default (LGD) and exposure at default (EAD):

  • Mortgage loans
  • Lombard loans
  • Unsecured loans
  • Financial guarantees
  • Credit cards
  • Bank deposits, secured
  • Bank deposits, unsecured
  • Financial investments
  • SIC (Swiss National Bank)

In the case of the first five listed types of credit, a further differentiation is made between the customer segments private clients, corporate clients and public sector debtors. There are therefore 19 segments, which differ from each other in the modelling of the calculation parameters, to enable the LLB Group’s credit portfolio to be segregated into risk groups that are as homogenous as possible.

Modelling principles and calculation parameters of expected credit loss

The calculation of the expected credit loss is based on the components probability of default, exposure at default and loss given default, whereby specific scenarios are used to determine these criteria. The most important differences in the modelling of the calculation parameters are shown in the following.

  • Probability of default: The probability of default is determined differently depending on the segment. In the case of corporate clients, the ratings are based on an external scoring model where the financial statements of the corporate clients serve as a basis for the calculation of the respective ratings and probability of default. With bank and financial deposits, the ratings and probability of default are obtained from external sources (Moody’s). Basically, the probability of default is calculated at the position level. One exception is the private client segment, where a global probability of default is applied for the entire private client segment. A differentiation is made only between the above-mentioned credit segments in determining the portfolio probability of default. The probabilities of default are based on internal historical default rates. A common factor with all ratings is that the probability of default in all cases is determined on a through-the-cycle basis, which is adjusted within the scope of macro-scenarios to take into consideration the expected economic conditions (point in time). For this purpose, in the case of private and corporate clients, the LLB Group estimates the development of interest rates as well as gross domestic product and models the impact of the expected economic development on the probability of default. In the case of bank and financial investments having ratings from Moody’s, this agency’s outlook of their future development is considered in the calculation.
  • Exposure at default: Exposure at default is determined on the basis of the average amortised cost in the individual monthly period. The development of amortised cost is calculated on the basis of the initial credit exposure compounded with the effective interest, plus or minus additional inflows or outflows of resources such as amortisation payments. The average amortised cost of the individual period is extrapolated from the development resulting from integration and division by the length of the periods. The duration of the credits is in accordance with the conditions specified in the credit agreement. In the case of credits having an unspecified duration, a model is used as basis for the calculation. The period of notice is used as a basis. Cash inflows (loan repayments) are defined on the basis of the planned amortisation payments. Cash outflows (loan increases) are dependent on the type of loan and the agreed-but-not-yet-utilised credit limit. Internal experts estimate a credit conversion factor, which is approved by the Board of Management, and is then employed to define the expected credit utilisation.
  • Loss given default: Basically, there are three approaches for determining the loss given default: internal loss given default models (loans with real estate collateral), estimates made by internal experts (Lombard loans) and external studies from Moody’s (bank and financial deposits). In the case of loss given default models, the LGD of loans secured by mortgages is calculated on the basis of workout procedures at the position level, taking into consideration the collateral provided. In this case, all the expected future cash flows are estimated and discounted. In addition, the value of the collateral provided is modelled on the basis of the expected development of real estate prices given various scenarios.

The expected credit loss is calculated as the sum of probability of default, exposure at default and loss given default.

Credit quality level, monitoring of significant increase in credit risk (SICR) and cure period

Loans are allocated to a credit quality level. In addition to historical analysis, forward-looking factors are taken into consideration.

Historical analysis at the LLB Group considers, for example, whether the credit risk with a position has significantly increased since the beginning of the contractual term, or whether there are already payment arrears. In the event of an increase of one percentage point in the default probability, the LLB Group assumes there will be a significant increase in the credit risk. Payments more than 30 days past due are assigned to credit quality level 2; payments more than 90 days past due are assigned to credit quality level 3.

In a forward-looking test, based on the development of a customer’s cash flows, it is examined whether a deterioration in the credit worthiness of the customer is to be expected in the future. Furthermore, in the case of bank and financial deposits, for example, the expectations of the rating agencies with respect to the future development of the ratings are considered in the assignment of a credit quality level for a loan. In addition, if it is unlikely that the debtor can repay his liabilities in full unless such measures as, for example, the realisation of collateral have to be implemented, the loan is assigned to the credit quality level 3.

During initial recognition, all risk-bearing positions are allocated to level 1 because no financial assets having an adverse effect on credit quality are purchased or generated.

Loans in credit quality level 2 are only reassigned to credit quality level 1 following a sustained improvement in their credit quality. The LLB Group defines a sustained improvement in credit quality as being the fulfilment of the criteria for credit quality level 1 for at least three months.

In the case of loans in credit quality level 3, the Group Recovery Department is responsible for estimating the extent of a sustained improvement in credit quality. This decision is largely guided by whether the default, as defined by the LLB Group, still exists or not. Here too, in order for a position to be returned to credit quality level 2, the criteria governing the credit quality level must have been fulfilled for at least three months.


Three scenarios are utilised for the measurement of the expected credit loss: a basic scenario as well as a negative and a positive scenario. The probability of a credit loss occurring is the same with all three scenarios. The average value derived from these scenarios represents the final expected credit loss.

In determining the expected credit loss on the basis of the various scenarios, the LLB Group utilises the following three macro-factors, which have an influence on the creditworthiness of a debtor as well as on the value of the collateral provided for the loan:

  • Gross domestic product
  • Interest rate development
  • Real estate price development

The impact of the macro-factors is based on estimates made by the Asset Management Division and the Risk Management Department of the LLB Group, whereby the macro-factors are also regularly submitted to the Board of Management for its approval.

Definition of default, determination of creditworthiness and write-off policy

The LLB Group bases its definition of default, according to IFRS 9, on the Capital Requirements Regulation (Art. 178 CRR) in order to ensure a uniform definition for regulatory and accounting policy purposes. On the one hand, claims which are more than 90 days past due are regarded as defaulted and, on the other, indications that a debt is unlikely to be paid can also lead to a claim being classified as in default.

The LLB Group regards the creditworthiness of a financial asset as being impaired when its recoverable amount, which is determined on the basis of a calculation of the present value, is lower than the carrying amount. The difference between the present value and the carrying amount is recognised as a specific allowance.

A debt is written off only when, in accordance with the enforcement order, there is no reasonable expectation of recovery in the future, where agreement has been reached with the debtor that LLB or a subsidiary within the LLB Group irrevocably waives a part of the debt, or where a pledge default certificate has been submitted, which enables, in spite of the write-off, the remaining debt or a part of the remaining debt to be claimed in the future. The pledge default certificate is only relevant in the case of private individuals because, following liquidation, insolvent legal entities no longer exist. A collection agency is commissioned to recover the debt.

Reporting of impairments

The LLB Group reports all impairments in the line item “Expected credit losses”.

2.6.2 Balance sheet positions outside IFRS 9 Property, investment property and other equipment

At the LLB Group, property encompasses real estate, buildings and additional building costs. It is measured at cost less any impairment and depreciation necessary for operational reasons. The LLB Group owns only a few properties, which it does not use entirely itself. The part of the property it does not use itself is rented out. This part property is always immaterial and cannot be separately sold. Accordingly, the properties are not classified as investment property but rather as tangible assets.

Other equipment encompasses fixtures, furnishings, machinery and IT equipment. These items are recognised in the accounts at amortised cost.

Depreciation is carried out on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life:




33 years

Building supplementary costs

10 years

Fixtures, furnishings, machinery

5 years

IT equipment

3-6 years


No depreciation

Small value purchases are charged directly to general and administrative expenses. In general, maintenance and renovation expenditures are booked to general and administrative expenses. If the related cost is substantial and results in an increase in value, such expenditures are capitalised and depreciated over their useful life. Profits from the sale of other equipment are reported as net income from properties in other income.

Property and other equipment are reviewed for impairment on every balance sheet reporting date. If, as a result of the review, a change in the useful life and / or a necessity for an impairment is identified, the residual carrying amount is depreciated over the new adjusted useful life and / or an impairment is made. Any reversal of an impairment is only considered up to the amount which would have been attained without impairment. Goodwill and other intangible assets

Goodwill is recognised in the balance sheet at acquisition cost in the functional currency of the taken over company on the date of acquisition and the value is reviewed and converted at the closing prices on the balance sheet reporting date. Goodwill is tested for impairment annually in the third quarter, or when events make this necessary. If impairment has occurred, an appropriate value allowance is made.

Other intangible assets are composed of client relationships, software and other intangible assets. They are recognised at cost minus necessary operating depreciation and impairments. They are reviewed for impairment on every balance sheet reporting date.

Intangible assets from acquisitions are amortised in a straight-line over an estimated useful life of five to fifteen years. In general, software is amortised over a period of three to six years. Core banking system software is amortised in a straight line over a period of up to 10 years.

Cloud computing activities are recognised by the LLB Group in the balance sheet only when certain conditions are fulfilled. In doing so, the LLB Group differentiates between licenses, service agreements and service agreements including system modifications. A license in relation to a cloud computing agreement is only recognised if a contractual right exists to take possession of the software during the hosting period without incurring a significant contractual penalty, or to install the software on LLB’s own hardware, or if an external third party can be commissioned to host the software. The LLB Group recognises a cloud computing service in the balance sheet only if this qualifies as a leasing asset or as an intangible asset. System modifications are only recognised if a power of disposition exists in the cloud environment. Current and deferred taxes

Current income tax is calculated on the basis of the tax law applicable in the individual country and recorded as expense for the accounting period in which the related income was earned. These are reported in the balance sheet as tax liabilities. If uncertainty exists about whether a tax issue will be recognised by the tax authorities, the LLB Group contacts the tax authority concerned at an early date. If a tax issue cannot be conclusively clarified before the reporting date, the LLB Group makes assumptions regarding the amount that the tax authorities will accept. In this case, the amount reported in the IFRS statement can differ from the amount shown in the income tax return. Employee benefits 

Retirement benefit plans

The LLB Group has pension plans for its employees, which are defined according to IFRS as defined benefit plans. In addition, there are long-term service awards which qualify as other long-term employee benefits. The period costs are determined by external experts using the projected unit credit method.

Variable salary component and share-based compensation

The valuation procedure for the variable salary component is based on the degree of individual target attainment and a weighting of the Group business result over the last three years, as well as a qualitative assessment made by the Group Board of Directors, which represents the basis for the bonus pool. Depending on the management level, the weighting varies between the individual target attainment and the bonus pool.

Certain executives receive a portion of their profit-related bonus in the form of entitlements to LLB shares. Allocation is made over a period of five or six years, beginning in the subsequent year, by the transfer every year of 25 or 20 per cent of the share entitlements, provided there are no circumstances which necessitate a reclaiming of the shares.

Share-based compensation with equity instruments represents an equity transaction. The change in the inventory of entitlement shares is recognised under share premium, whereby personnel expenses serve as the off-setting item. The calculation of the fair value of the earned share entitlements at the end of the year is made on the basis of an estimate as part of the variable salary component. The number of share entitlements granted is calculated on the basis of the average of all share prices in the fourth quarter of a year.

The LLB Group holds shares in order to operate a share-based compensation system with treasury shares. The difference between the market value on the acquisition date and the market value on the date of grant is recognised in share premium.

At the same time, part of the variable cash component for the Board of Management is subject to a vesting period of up to six years. This represents a residual obligation for the LLB Group; personnel expenses serve as an offsetting item. The cash settlement is regulated in such a way that it is not readjusted within the vesting period. Payment is made pro rata temporis, analogous to the vested benefits. Provisions and contingent liabilities

In assessing whether the allocation of a provision and its amount are reasonable, the best possible estimates and assumptions available on the balance sheet reporting date are utilised. If necessary, these are adjusted at a later date to reflect new information and circumstances.

For legal proceedings in cases where the facts are not specifically known, the claimant has not quantified the alleged damages, the proceedings are at an early stage, or where sound and substantial information is lacking, the LLB Group is not in a position to estimate reliably the approximate financial implication.

In addition, provisions are allocated for expected credit losses with off-balance-sheet positions. This is due to the fact that there is no corresponding asset within the balance sheet which could be reduced in value by means of a value allowance. The expected credit loss is reported in the income statement under “expected credit losses”. Credit loss forms an integral part of other business risks.

Guarantees issued lead to contingent liabilities if indeed LLB can be made jointly and severally liable for liabilities towards third parties, but it can be assumed that these liabilities will not be paid by the LLB Group. If, on the basis of the current evaluation of contingent liabilities, an outflow of economic resources in the future is probable, a provision is allocated for this position which was previously treated as a contingent liability. Treasury shares

Shares of Liechtensteinische Landesbank AG held by the LLB Group are valued at cost of acquisition and reported as a reduction in equity. The difference between the sale proceeds and the corresponding cost of acquisition of treasury shares is recorded under share premium. Securities lending and borrowing transactions

In the case of securities lending and borrowing transactions, the LLB Group acts only as a principal. Such transactions are undertaken only on a collateralised basis, whereby cash or securities are received or advanced as collateral (see also note 34).

Cash collateral is entered in the balance sheet as a liability to, or a claim against banks. Securities lent out remain in the trading portfolio or in the financial investments portfolio as long as the risks and rewards of ownership of the securities are retained. The securities are valued according to their classification. Borrowed securities are not recognised in the balance sheet as long as the risks and rewards of ownership remain with the lender.

Fees received or paid are accrued and recognised in net commission income.

2.7 Recognition of revenues

2.7.1 Recognition of revenues Recognition of revenues over a specified period

Fees for securities administration which do not include variable components are typical revenues earned from fees and services that are recognised over a period at the LLB Group.

On account of the nature of the contracts at the LLB Group, a time period exists between the provision of the service and the payment by the client for it, which generally amounts to a maximum of one year. The payments made by clients are made on specific dates, usually at the end of a quarter.

The costs incurred in the provision of the service are recognised continually over the period because these are the same services that are required every day. Recognition of revenues on a specific date

Typical revenues earned from fees and services that are recognised on a specific date include brokerage or processing fees for Visa debit cards used abroad.

In the case of services that are only delivered over a period, but the payment for them is variable and a large degree of uncertainty exists concerning the amount of the revenues, recognition of the revenues occurs only at that time when it is highly probably that no significant cancellation will occur with the recognised revenues. At the LLB Group, this situation can only arise in connection with performance-related fees (e.g. performance fees). The recognition period is generally a maximum of one year.

Costs incurred in providing a service are generally recognised at the time the service is provided.

2.7.2 Recognition

The revenues recognised from fees and services are based on the service obligations specified in the contract and the payment to be made by the client for them. The payment may contain both fixed and variable components, whereby variable payments only occur in connection with asset management and are influenced by certain threshold values. The client may have to make an additional payment if, for example, a specified return is attained or he has decided to pay a previously stipulated percentage on his assets on a previously determined date as a fee.

If discounts have been granted within the scope of combinations of several products, these can be assigned to the individual service obligations.

2.7.3 All-in fee

Clients have the possibility of paying an all-in fee in the form of a lump sum or a percentage fee of assets for a range of different services. This all-in fee is reported in note 2 in a separate table. No reclassification into the corresponding line items of the individual revenue types containing the all-in fee is made because the all-in fee is assigned to the asset management and investment business line item on account of its business model. The additional table provides greater transparency of how these revenues are broken down in their entirety.