Accounting policies and valuation principles

Basic principles

The accounting and valuation policies are drawn up in accordance with the provisions of the Liechtenstein Person and Company Law (PGR), as well as the Liechtenstein Banking Law and the accompanying Banking Ordinance.

Recording of business

All completed business transactions are valued and recorded in the balance sheet and the profit and loss account according to the specified valuation principles. The transactions are booked on the transaction date. Up to their date of settlement or the value date, futures transactions are recorded at their replacement value under other assets or other liabilities.

Foreign currency translations

Assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the foreign exchange middle rate prevailing on the balance sheet date. Bank note holdings for exchange business are translated at the bank note bid rate in effect on the balance sheet date. Exchange gains and losses arising from the valuation are booked to the profit and loss account. The following exchange rates were employed for foreign currency conversion:

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Liquid funds, public authority debt instruments and bills approved for refinancing by central banks, balances due from banks and customers, liabilities

These items are shown in the balance sheet at nominal value minus any unearned discount on money market instruments.

Impaired due amounts, i. e. amounts due from debtors who probably will not repay them, are valued on an individual basis and their impairment is covered by specific allowances. Off-balance sheet transactions such as commitments for loans, guarantees and derivative financial instruments, are also included in this valuation. Loans are regarded as overdue at the latest when interest and / or principal repayments are more than 90 days in arrears. Overdue and impaired interest payments are charged directly to allowances and provisions. Loans are put on a non-accrual basis if the interest due on them is deemed to be uncollectible and interest accrual is therefore no longer practical.

The impairment is measured on the basis of the difference between the book value of the claim and the probable recoverable amount taking into consideration counterparty risk and the net proceeds from the realization of any collateral. If it is expected that the realization process will take longer than one year, the estimated realization proceeds are discounted on the balance sheet date. The specific allowances are deducted directly from the corresponding asset positions. A claim is reclassified as no longer endangered if the outstanding principal and interest are again repaid on time in accordance with the original contractual terms. To cover the risks in retail business, which are composed of numerous small claims, lump-sum individual allowances, calculated on the basis of empirical values, are made for the unsecured loans and overdrawn limits for which individual allowances have not already been considered.

Debt instruments and other fixed-interest securities, equities and other non-fixed-interest securities

Trading portfolios of securities and precious metals are valued at the market value on the balance sheet date. Securities for which there is no regular, active market are carried at the lower of cost or market value. Holdings of securities and precious metals as current assets are valued at the lower of cost or market value. Interest earnings are credited to the item interest income, dividend income is carried under the item income from securities. Price gains are shown under the item income from financial transactions.

Fixed-interest securities that are intended to be held until final maturity are valued according to the accrual method. Accordingly, interest income, including amortisation of premiums and accretion of discounts, is recognised on an accrual basis until final maturity. Interest-related realised capital gains or losses arising from the premature sale or redemption of securities are recognised on an accrual basis over the remaining period to maturity, i. e. up to the original date of final maturity. Interest earnings are credited to the item interest income. Equities and precious metals holdings held as fixed assets are valued at the lower of cost or market value. Dividend income is carried under the item income from securities. Allowances are shown under the items write-downs to participations or earnings from write-ups to participations, shares in associated companies and securities treated as long-term investments, or earnings from additions to participations, shares in associated companies and securities are treated as long-term investments.


Participations comprises shares owned by LLB AG in companies which represent a minority participation and which are held as long-term investments, as well as all participations of an infrastructural nature. These items are valued at cost minus necessary allowances.

Shares in associated companies

LLB AG’s existing majority participations are recorded as shares in associated companies. These items are valued at cost minus necessary allowances.

Intangible assets

Software development costs are capitalized when they meet certain criteria relating to identifiability, it is probable that economic benefits will flow to the company from them, and the costs can be measured reliably. Internally developed software meeting these criteria and purchased software are capitalized and subsequently amortised over three to ten years.

Low-cost acquisitions are charged directly to administrative expenses.

Tangible fixed assets

Real estate is valued at the acquisition cost plus any investment that increases the value of the property, less necessary depreciation. New buildings and refurbishments are depreciated over 33 years and building supplementary costs over 10 years. No depreciation is charged on undeveloped land unless an adjustment has to be made to allow for a reduction in its market value. Other physical assets include fixtures, furniture, machinery and IT equipment. They are capitalized and depreciated in full over their estimated economic life (3 to 5 years).

Low-cost acquisitions are charged directly to administrative expenses.

Allowances and provisions

In accordance with prudent accounting practice, specific allowances and provisions as well as general allowances are made for all risks existing on the balance sheet date. Allowances are offset directly with the corresponding asset position. Provisions are booked as such in the balance sheet.


Accruals for taxes payable on the basis of the profits earned in the period under report are charged as expenses in the corresponding period. Provisions for deferred tax are formed in relation to allowances and provisions recognised only for tax purposes. The calculation is made on the basis of the estimated tax rates used for actual taxation.

Provisions for general banking risks

Provisions for general banking risks are precautionary reserves formed to hedge against latent risks in the bank’s operating activities.

Off-balance-sheet transactions

Off-balance-sheet transactions are valued at nominal values. Provisions are made in the case of identifiable risks arising from contingent liabilities and other off-balance-sheet transactions.

Derivative financial instruments

The gross replacement values of individual contracts in derivative financial instruments – positive and negative replacement values are not offset against each other – are stated in the balance sheet (under other assets or other liabilities) and in the notes to the financial statement. All replacement values for contracts concluded for the bank’s own account are reported. In contrast, in the case of customer transactions only the replacement values for OTC contracts are reported, or for exchange-traded products if margin requirements are inadequate. The contract volumes are reported in the statement of off-balance-sheet transactions and in the notes. Trading positions in financial derivatives are valued at market rates provided the contracts are listed on an exchange or a regular, active market exists. If this is not the case, the contracts are valued at the lower of cost or market value. If interest business positions are hedged with derivatives, the differential amount between the market value and the accrual method is recognised in the settlement account.

Statement of cash flows

On account of its obligation to prepare a consolidated financial statement, LLB AG is exempted from the necessity to provide a statement of cash flow. The consolidated cash flow statement of the LLB Group is a part of the consolidated financial statement.

Changes to the previous year